Craig S. Schwalbe

Associate Dean, Academic Affairs: Associate Professor


Dr. Craig Schwalbe has ten years of professional social work practice experience. In these ten years, he provided case management, individual therapy, and group therapy to children and families involved with the child welfare and children's mental health systems as well as seriously mentally ill adults involved in the mental health system. In addition, his experience includes program development and program administration. His current research explores the effects of probation programs on the resilience of youthful offenders in the juvenile justice system. He is presently licensed as a clinical social worker in the state of North Carolina.

Research Interests:

  • Social Context of Probation
  • Community-Based Services and Interventions for Children and Adolescents in Jordan
  • National survey of juvenile probation officers
  • Risk assessment predictive validity


  • WT Grant Foundation Scholars Award (2009-2014)

Current Grants & Projects:

  • Mental health screening, juvenile justice decision-making, and recidivism
  • National survey of juvenile probation officers
  • Social Context of Probation
  • Risk assessment predictive validity

Selected Publications:

Schwalbe, C. S., & Maschi, T. (in-press). Confronting delinquency: Probation officers’ use of coercion and client centered tactics to foster youth compliance. Crime and Delinquency. Prepublished online, July 20, 2009, DOI:10.1177/0011128709335150.

Schwalbe, C. S., & Maschi, T. (2010). Patterns of contact and cooperation between juvenile probation officers and parents of youthful offenders. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 49, 398-416.

McReynolds, L. S., Schwalbe, C. S., & Wasserman, G. A. (2010). The contribution of psychiatric disorder to juvenile recidivism. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 37, 204-216.

Schwalbe, C. S. & Maschi, T. (2009). Investigating probation strategies with juvenile offenders: The influence of officers’ attitudes and youth characteristics. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 357-367.

Schwalbe, C. S. (2009). Risk assessment stability: A revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument. Research on Social Work Practice, 19, 205-213.

Schwalbe, C. S., Hatcher, S., & Maschi, T. (2009). The effects of treatment needs and prior social services utilization on Juvenile Court decision making. Social Work Research, 33, 31-40.

Schwalbe, C. S. (2008). A meta-analysis of juvenile justice risk assessment instruments: Predictive validity by gender. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35, 1367-1381.

Schwalbe, C. S., Macy, R. J.,  Day, S. H., & Fraser, M. W. (2008).  Classifying offenders: An application of latent class analysis to needs assessment in juvenile justice. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 279-294.

Schwalbe, C. S. (2008). Strengthening the integration of actuarial risk assessment with clinical judgment in an evidence based practice framework. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1458-1464.

Schwalbe, C. S. (2007). Risk assessment for juvenile justice:  A meta-analysis. Law and Human Behavior, 31, 449-462.

Schwalbe, C. S., Fraser, M. W., & Day, S. H. (2007). Predictive validity of the Joint Risk Matrix with Juvenile Offenders: A focus on gender and race/ethnicity. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 348-361.

Schwalbe, C. S., Fraser, M. W., Day, S. H., & Cooley, V. (2006). Classifying juvenile offenders according to risk of recidivism: Predictive validity, race/ethnicity, and gender. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 33, 305-324.